5α-Reductase plays an important role in the metabolism of norethisterone, and 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and dutasteride can inhibit its metabolism. [ citation needed ] Norethisterone is partially metabolized via hydroxylation by CYP3A4 , and inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A4 can significantly alter circulating levels of norethisterone.  For instance, the CYP3A4 inducers rifampicin and bosentan have been found to decrease norethisterone exposure by 42% and 23%, respectively, and the CYP3A4 inducers carbamazepine and St. John's wort have also been found to accelerate norethisterone clearance. 
Diabetic patients must follow a regular, prescribed diet and exercise schedule to avoid either hypo- or hyperglycemia. Fever, thyroid disease, infection, recent trauma or surgery, diarrhea secondary to malabsorption, vomiting, and certain medications can affect requirements of antidiabetic agents; dosage adjustments may be necessary. Diabetic patients should be given a 'sick-day' plan to take appropriate action with blood glucose monitoring and their antidiabetic therapy, including liraglutide, when acute illness is present. Temporary use of insulin in place of oral antidiabetic agents may be necessary during periods of physiologic stress (., burns, systemic infection, trauma, surgery, or fever).
Laws and Penalties: Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth. The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal. Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense. The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double. While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS. State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).