European airspace is one of the busiest in the world, which means vast numbers of passengers in a very limited space. As more and more passengers want to stream videos or send e-mails at the same time via satellite connections, less and less bandwidth is available to each user. The capacity per satellite is limited and putting new satellites into space is a difficult and costly business. Demand for data volumes is rising in the air, as well as on the ground. This means we also need to build out a network to create additional capacity for European airspace. And this is where the ground component of the new European Aviation Network comes in. The familiar LTE technology is being tweaked for the special needs of air traffic and specially developed antennas are being put up. So, EAN combines the best of both worlds: together, the existing satellite technology and the specially adapted LTE network offer never before available bandwidths above the clouds.
Most of Earth's volume is mantle, the hot rock layer between the crust and the core. Too deep to drill, the mantle's composition is a mystery leavened by two clues: meteorites, and hunks of rock heaved up by volcanoes.
First, scientists think the composition of the Earth's mantle is similar to that of meteorites called chondrites, which are chiefly made of olivine. Second, lava belched by volcanoes sometimes taps the mantle, bringing up chunks of odd minerals that hint at the intense heat and pressure olivine endures in the bowels of the Earth.